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The CIA's 1963 Torture Manual In Its Entirety, Part I
BACK in the thick of the heavy, dark days of the Vietnam War, the CIA conducted a survey of the existing literature it had on torture, all of the studies carried out by reckless psychologists in the 50s, wisdom accrued from police beatings of suspects in interrogations, the effects of isolation, everything the most powerful clandestine service knew about torture and compiled it into what amounted to a field manual on how to best extract information from unwilling informants. The document was given the codename KUBARK and for decades it served as the standard for legally gray or black interrogation techniques, many of which emerged when the press reported on human rights violations by the U.S. military during the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. A supplement to the KUBARK manual, the Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual, was released in 1983. What follows is the manual in its entirety, from a version downloaded by me initially sometime in 2008 as research for a HowStuffWorks article titled, Is there a torture manual? The answer turned out to be yes.
KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation July 1963 I. Introduction A. Explanation of Purpose
This manual cannot teach anyone how to be, or become, a good interrogator. At best it can help readers to avoid the characteristic mistakes of poor interrogators. Its purpose is to provide guidelines for KUBARK interrogation, and particularly the counterintelligence interrogation of resistant sources. Designed as an aid for interrogators and others immediately concerned, it is based largely upon the published results of extensive research, including scientific inquiries conducted by specialists in closely related subjects.
There is nothing mysterious about interrogation. It consists of no more than obtaining needed information through responses to questions. As is true of all craftsmen, some interrogators are more able than others; and some of their superiority may be innate. But sound interrogation nevertheless rests upon a knowledge of the subject matter and on certain broad principles, chiefly psychological, which are not hard to understand. The success of good interrogators depends in large measure upon their use, conscious or not, of these principles and of processes and techniques deriving from them. Knowledge of subject matter and of the basic principles will not of itself create a successful interrogation, but it will make possible the avoidance of mistakes that are characteristic of poor interrogation. The purpose, then, is not to teach the reader how to be a good interrogator but rather to tell him what he must learn in order to become a good interrogator.
The interrogation of a resistant source who is a staff or agent member of an Orbit intelligence or security service or of a clandestine Communist organization is one of the most exacting of professional tasks. Usually the odds still favor the interrogator, but they are sharply cut by the training, experience, patience and toughness of the interrogatee. In such circumstances the interrogator needs all the help that he can get. And a principal source of aid today is scientific findings. The intelligence service which is able to bring pertinent, modern knowledge to bear upon its problems enjoys huge advantages over a service which conducts its clandestine business in eighteenth century fashion. It is true that American psychologists have devoted somewhat more attention to Communist interrogation techniques, particularly "brainwashing", than to U. S. practices. Yet they have conducted scientific inquiries into many subjects that are closely related to interrogation: the effects of debility and isolation, the polygraph, reactions to pain and fear, hypnosis and heightened suggestibility, narcosis, etc. This work is of sufficient importance and relevance that it is no longer possible to discuss interrogation significantly without reference to the psychological research conducted in the past decade. For this reason a major purpose of this study is to focus relevant scientific findings upon CI interrogation. Every effort has been made to report and interpret these findings in our own language, in place of the terminology employed by the psychologists.
This study is by no means confined to a resume and interpretation of psychological findings. The approach of the psychologists is customarily manipulative; that is, they suggest methods of imposing controls or alterations upon the interrogatee from the outside. Except within the Communist frame of reference, they have paid less attention to the creation of internal controls -- i.e., conversion of the source, so that voluntary cooperation results. Moral considerations aside, the imposition of external techniques of manipulating people carries with it the grave risk of later lawsuits, adverse publicity, or other attempts to strike back. B. Explanation of Organization
This study moves from the general topic of interrogation per se (Parts I, II, III, IV, V, and VI) to planning the counterintelligence interrogation (Part VII) to the CI interrogation of resistant sources (Parts VIII, IX, and X). The definitions, legal considerations, and discussions of interrogators and sources, as well as Section VI on screening and other preliminaries, are relevant to all kinds of interrogations. Once it is established that the source is probably a counterintelligence target (in other words, is probably a member of a foreign intelligence or security service, a Communist, or a part of any other group engaged in clandestine activity directed against the national security), the interrogation is planned and conducted accordingly. The CI interrogation techniques are discussed in an order of increasing intensity as the focus on source resistance grows sharper. The last section, on do's and dont's, is a return to the broader view of the opening parts; as a check-list, it is placed last solely for convenience.
Most of the intelligence terminology employed here which may once have been ambiguous has been clarified through usage or through KUBARK instructions. For this reason definitions have been omitted for such terms as burn notice, defector, escapee, and refugee. Other definitions have been included despite a common agreement about meaning if the significance is shaded by the context.
1. Assessment: the analysis and synthesis of information, usually about a person or persons, for the purpose of appraisal. The assessment of individuals is based upon the compilation and use of psychological as well as biographic detail.
2. Bona fides: evidence or reliable information about identity, personal (including intelligence) history, and intentions or good faith.
3. Control: the capacity to generate, alter, or halt human behavior by implying, citing, or using physical or psychological means to ensure compliance with direction. The compliance may be voluntary or involuntary. Control of an interrogatee can rarely be established without control of his environment.
4. Counterintelligence interrogation: an interrogation (see #7) designed to obtain information about hostile clandestine activities and persons or groups engaged therein. KUBARK CI interrogations are designed, almost invariably, to yield information about foreign intelligence and security services or Communist organizations. Because security is an element of counterintelligence, interrogations conducted to obtain admissions of clandestine plans or activities directed against KUBARK or PBPRIME security are also CI interrogations. But unlike a police interrogation, the CI interrogation is not aimed at causing the interrogatee to incriminate himself as a means of bringing him to trial. Admissions of complicity are not, to a CI service, ends in themselves but merely preludes to the acquisition of more information.
5. Debriefing: obtaining information by questioning a controlled and witting source who is normally a willing one.
6. Eliciting: obtaining information, without revealing intent or exceptional interest, through a verbal or written exchange with a person who may be willing or unwilling to provide what is sought and who may or may not be controlled.
7. Interrogation: obtaining information by direct questioning of a person or persons under conditions which are either partly or fully controlled by the questioner or are believed by those questioned to be subject to his control. Because interviewing, debriefing, and eliciting are simpler methods of obtaining information from cooperative subjects, interrogation is usually reserved for sources who are suspect, resistant, or both.
8. Intelligence interview: obtaining information, not customarily under controlled conditions, by questioning a person who is aware of the nature and perhaps of the significance of his answers but who is ordinarily unaware of the purposes and specific intelligence affiliations of the interviewer.
III. Legal and Policy Considerations
The legislation which founded KUBARK specifically denied it any law-enforcement or police powers. Yet detention in a controlled environment and perhaps for a lengthy period is frequently essential to a successful counterintelligence interrogation of a recalcitrant source. [approx. three lines deleted] This necessity, obviously, should be determined as early as possible.
The legality of detaining and questioning a person, and of the methods employed, [approx. 10 lines deleted]
Detention poses the most common of the legal problems. KUBARK has no independent legal authority to detain anyone against his will, [approx. 4 lines deleted] The haste in which some KUBARK interrogations have been conducted has not always been the product of impatience. Some security services, especially those of the Sino-Soviet Bloc, may work at leisure, depending upon time as well as their own methods to melt recalcitrance. KUBARK usually cannot. Accordingly, unless it is considered that the prospective interrogatee is cooperative and will remain so indefinitely, the first step in planning an interrogation is to determine how long the source can be held. The choice of methods depends in part upon the answer to this question.
[approx. 15 lines deleted]
The handling and questioning of defectors are subject to the provisions of [one or two words deleted] Directive No. 4: to its related Chief/KUBARK Directives, principally [approx. 1/2 line deleted] Book Dispatch [one or two words deleted] and to pertinent [one or two words deleted]. Those concerned with the interrogation of defectors, escapees, refugees, or repatriates should know these references.
The kinds of counterintelligence information to be sought in a CI interrogation are stated generally in Chief/KUBARK Directive and in greater detail in Book Dispatch [approx. 1/3 line deleted].
The interrogation of PBPRIME citizens poses special problems. First, such interrogations should not be conducted for reasons lying outside the sphere of KUBARK' s responsibilities. For example, the [approx. 2/3 line deleted] but should not normally become directly involved. Clandestine activity conducted abroad on behalf of a foreign power by a private PBPRIME citizens does fall within KUBARK's investigative and interrogative responsibilities. However, any investigation, interrogation, or interview of a PBPRIME citizen which is conducted abroad because it be known or suspected that he is engaged in clandestine activities directed against PBPRIME security interests requires the prior and personal approval of Chief/KUDESK or of his deputy.
Since 4 October 1961, extraterritorial application has been given to the Espionage Act, making it henceforth possible to prosecute in the Federal Courts any PBPRIME citizen who violates the statutes of this Act in foreign countries. ODENVY has requested that it be informed, in advance if time permits, if any investigative steps are undertaken in these cases. Since KUBARK employees cannot be witnesses in court, each investigation must be conducted in such a manner that evidence obtained may be properly introduced if the case comes to trial. [approx. 1 line deleted] states policy and procedures for the conduct of investigations of PBPRIME citizens abroad.
Interrogations conducted under compulsion or duress are especially likely to involve illegality and to entail damaging consequences for KUBARK. Therefore prior Headquarters approval at the KUDOVE level must be obtained for the interrogation of any source against his will and under any of the following circumstances:
1. If bodily harm is to be inflicted.
2. If medical, chemical, or electrical methods or materials are to be used to induce acquiescence.
3. [approx. 3 lines deleted]
The CI interrogator dealing with an uncooperative interrogatee who has been well-briefed by a hostile service on the legal restrictions under which ODYOKE services operate must expect some effective delaying tactics. The interrogatee has been told that KUBARK will not hold him long, that he need only resist for a while. Nikolay KHOKHLOV, for example, reported that before he left for Frankfurt am Main on his assassination mission, the following thoughts coursed through his head: "If I should get into the hands of Western authorities, I can become reticent, silent, and deny my voluntary visit to Okolovich. I know I will not be tortured and that under the procedures of western law I can conduct myself boldly." (17) [The footnote numerals in this text are keyed to the numbered bibliography at the end.] The interrogator who encounters expert resistance should not grow flurried and press; if he does, he is likelier to commit illegal acts which the source can later use against him. Remembering that time is on his side, the interrogator should arrange to get as much of it as he needs.
IV. The Interrogator A number of studies of interrogation discuss qualities said to be desirable in an interrogator. The list seems almost endless - a professional manner, forcefulness, understanding and sympathy, breadth of general knowledge, area knowledge, "a practical knowledge of psychology", skill in the tricks of the trade, alertness, perseverance, integrity, discretion, patience, a high I.Q., extensive experience, flexibility, etc., etc. Some texts even discuss the interrogator's manners and grooming, and one prescribed the traits considered desirable in his secretary.
A repetition of this catalogue would serve no purpose here, especially because almost all of the characteristics mentioned are also desirable in case officers, agents, policemen, salesmen, lumberjacks, and everybody else. The search of the pertinent scientific literature disclosed no reports of studies based on common denominator traits of successful interrogators or any other controlled inquiries that would invest these lists with any objective validity.
Perhaps the four qualifications of chief importance to the interrogator are (1) enough operational training and experience to permit quack recognition of leads; (2) real familiarity with the language to be used; (3) extensive background knowledge about the interrogatee's native country (and intelligence service, if employed by one); and (4) a genuine understanding of the source as a person.
[approx. 1/2 line deleted] stations, and even a few bases can call upon one or several interrogators to supply these prerequisites, individually or as a team. Whenever a number of interrogators is available, the percentage of successes is increased by careful matching of questioners and sources and by ensuring that rigid prescheduling does not prevent such matching. Of the four traits listed, a genuine insight into the source's character and motives is perhaps most important but least common. Later portions of this manual explore this topic in more detail. One general observation is introduced now, however, because it is considered basic to the establishment of rapport, upon which the success of non-coercive interrogation depends.
The interrogator should remember that he and the interrogatee are often working at cross-purposes not because the interrogates is malevolently withholding or misleading but simply because what he wants front the situation is not what the interrogator wants. The interrogator's goal is to obtain useful information -- facts about which the interrogatee presumably have acquired information. But at the outset of the interrogation, and perhaps for a long time afterwards, the person being questioned is not greatly concerned with communicating his body of specialized information to his questioner; he is concerned with putting his best foot forward. The question uppermost in his mind, at the beginning, is not likely to be "How can I help PBPRIME?" but rather "What sort of impression am I making?" and, almost immediately thereafter, "What is going to happen to me now?" (An exception is the penetration agent or provocateur sent to a KUBARK field installation after training in withstanding interrogation. Such an agent may feel confident enough not to be gravely concerned about himself. His primary interest, from the beginning, may be the acquisition of information about the interrogator and his service.)
The skilled interrogator can save a great deal of time by understanding the emotional needs of the interrogates. Most people confronted by an official -- and dimly powerful -- representative of a foreign power will get down to cases much faster if made to feel, from the start, that they are being treated as individuals. So simple a matter as greeting an interrogatee by his name at the opening of the session establishes in his mind the comforting awareness that he is considered as a person, not a squeezable sponge. This is not to say that egotistic types should be allowed to bask at length in the warmth of individual recognition. But it is important to assuage the fear of denigration which afflicts many people when first interrogated by making it clear that the individuality of the interrogatee is recognized. With this common understanding established, the interrogation can move on to impersonal matters and will not later be thwarted or interrupted -- or at least not as often -- by irrelevant answers designed not to provide facts but to prove that the interrogatee is a respectable member of the human race.
Although it is often necessary to trick people into telling what we need to know, especially in CI interrogations, the initial question which the interrogator asks of himself should be, "How can I make him want to tell me what he knows?" rather than "How can I trap him into disclosing what he knows?" If the person being questioned is genuinely hostile for ideological reasons, techniques of manipulation are in order. But the assumption of hostility -- or at least the use of pressure tactics at the first encounter -- may make difficult subjects even out of those who would respond to recognition of individuality and an initial assumption of good will.
Another preliminary comment about the interrogator is that normally he should not personalize. That is, he should not be pleased, flattered, frustrated, goaded, or otherwise emotionally and personally affected by the interrogation. A calculated display of feeling employed for a specific purpose is an exception; but even under these circumstances the interrogator is in full control. The interrogation situation is intensely inter-personal; it is therefore all the more necessary to strike a counter-balance by an attitude which the subject clearly recognizes as essentially fair and objective. The kind of person who cannot help personalizing, who becomes emotionally involved in the interrogation situation, may have chance (and even spectacular) successes as an interrogator but is almost certain to have a poor batting average.
It is frequently said that the interrogator should be "a good judge of human nature." In fact, [approx. 3 lines deleted] (3) This study states later (page "Great attention has been given to the degree to which persons are able to make judgements from casual observations regarding the personality characteristics of another. The consensus of research is that with respect to many kinds of judgments, at least some judges perform reliably better than chance...." Nevertheless, "... the level of reliability in judgments is so low that research encounters difficulties when it seeks to determine who makes better judgments...." (3) In brief, the interrogator is likelier to overestimate his ability to judge others than to underestimate it, especially if he has had little or no training in modern psychology. It follows that errors in assessment and in handling are likelier to result from snap judgments based upon the assumption of innate skill in judging others than from holding such judgments in abeyance until enough facts are known.
There has been a good deal of discussion of interrogation experts vs. subject-matter experts. Such facts as are available suggest that the latter have a slight advantage. But for counterintelligence purposes the debate is academic. [approx. 5 lines deleted] It is sound practice to assign inexperienced interrogators to guard duty or to other supplementary tasks directly related to interrogation, so that they can view the process closely before taking charge. The use of beginning interrogators as screeners (see part VI) is also recommended.
Although there is some limited validity in the view, frequently expressed in interrogation primers, that the interrogation is essentially a battle of wits, the CI interrogator who encounters a skilled and resistant interrogatee should remember that a wide variety of aids can be made available in the field or from Headquarters. (These are discussed in Part VIII.) The intensely personal nature of the interrogation situation makes it all the more necessary that the KUBARK questioner should aim not for a personal triumph but for his true goal -- the acquisition of all needed information by any authorized means.
*The interrogator should be supported whenever possible by qualified analysts' review of his daily "take"; experience has shown that such a review will raise questions to be put and points to be clarified and lead to a thorough coverage of the subject in hand.
V. The Interrogatee A. Types Of Sources: Intelligence Categories
From the viewpoint of the intelligence service the categories of persons who most frequently provide useful information in response to questioning are travellers; repatriates; defectors, escapees, and refugees; transferred sources; agents, including provocateurs, double agents, and penetration agents; and swindlers and fabricators.
1. Travellers are usually interviewed, debriefed, or queried through eliciting techniques. If they are interrogated, the reason is that they are known or believed to fall into one of the following categories.
2. Repatriates are sometimes interrogated, although other techniques are used more often. The proprietary interests of the host government will frequently dictate interrogation by a liaison service rather than by KUBARK. If KUBARK interrogates, the following preliminary steps are taken:
a. A records check, including local and Headquarters traces.
b . Testing of bona fides .
c. Determination of repatriate's kind and level of access while outside his own country.
d. Preliminary assessment of motivation (including political orientation), reliability, and capability as observer and reporter.
e. Determination of all intelligence or Communist
relationships, whether with a service or party of the repatriate's own country, country of detention, or another. Full particulars are needed.
3. Defectors, escapees, and refugees are normally interrogated at sufficient length to permit at least a preliminary testing of bona fides . The experience of the post-war years has demonstrated that Soviet defectors (1) almost never defect solely or primarily because of inducement by a Western service, (2) usually leave the USSR for personal rather than ideological reasons, and (3) are often RIS agents.
[approx. 9 lines deleted]
All analyses of the defector-refugee flow have shown that the Orbit services are well-aware of the advantages offered by this channel as a means of planting their agents in target countries.
[approx. 14 lines deleted]
4. Transferred sources referred to KUBARK by another service
for interrogation are usually sufficiently well-known to the transferring service so that a file has been opened. Whenever possible, KUBARK should secure a copy of the file or its full informational equivalent before accepting custody.
5. Agents are more frequently debriefed than interrogated. [approx. 3 lines deleted] as an analytic tool. If it is then established or strongly suspected that the agent belongs to one of the following categories, further investigation and, eventually, interrogation usually follow.
a. Provocateur. Many provocation agents are walk-ins posing as escapees, refugees, or defectors in order to penetrate emigre groups, ODYOKE intelligence, or other targets assigned by hostile services. Although denunciations by genuine refugees and other evidence of information obtained from documents, local officials, and like sources may result in exposure, the detection of provocation frequently depends upon skilled interrogation. A later section of this manual deals with the preliminary testing of bona fides . But the results of preliminary testing are often inconclusive, and detailed interrogation is frequently essential to confession and full revelation. Thereafter the provocateur may be questioned for operational and positive intelligence as well as counterintelligence provided that proper cognizance is taken of his status during the questioning and later, when reports are prepared.
b. Double agent. The interrogation of DA's frequently follows a determination or strong suspicion that the double is "giving the edge" to the adversary service. As is also true for the interrogation of provocateurs, thorough preliminary investigation will pay handsome dividends when questioning gets under way. In fact, it is a basic principle of interrogation that the questioner should have at his disposal, before querying starts, as much pertinent information as can be gathered without the knowledge of the prospective interrogatee.
[2/3 of page deleted]
d. Swindlers and fabricators are usually interrogated for prophylactic reasons, not for counterintelligence information. The purpose is the prevention or nullification of damage to KUBARK, to other ODYOKE services Swindlers and fabricators have little of CI significance to communicate but are notoriously skillful timewasters. Interrogation of them is usually inconclusive and, if prolonged, unrewarding. The professional peddler with several IS contacts may prove an exception; but he will usually give the edge to a host security service because otherwise he cannot function with impunity. B. Types of Sources: Personality Categories
The number of systems devised for categorizing human beings is large, and most of them are of dubious validity. Various categorical schemes are outlined in treatises on interrogation. The two typologies most frequently advocated are psychologic-emotional and geographic-cultural. Those who urge the former argue that the basic emotional-psychological patterns do not vary significantly with time, place, or culture. The latter school maintains the existence of a national character and sub-national categories, and interrogation guides based on this principle recommend approaches tailored to geographical cultures.
It is plainly true that the interrogation source cannot be understood in a vacuum, isolated from social context. It is equally true that some of the most glaring blunders in interrogation (and other operational processes ) have resulted from ignoring the source's background. Moreover, emotional-psychological schematizations sometimes present atypical extremes rather than the kinds of people commonly encountered by interrogators. Such typologies also cause disagreement even among professional psychiatrists and psychologists. Interrogators who adopt them and who note in an interrogatee one or two of the characteristics of "Type A" may mistakenly assign the source to Category A and assume the remaining traits.
On the other hand, there are valid objections to the adoption of cultural-geographic categories for interrogation purposes (however valid they may be as KUCAGE concepts). The pitfalls of ignorance of the distinctive culture of the source have "[approx. 4 lines deleted]
[approx. 8 lines deleted]." (3)
The ideal solution would be to avoid all categorizing. Basically, all schemes for labelling people are wrong per se; applied arbitrarily, they always produce distortions. Every interrogator knows that a real understanding of the individual is worth far more than a thorough knowledge of this or that pigeon-hole to which he has been consigned. And for interrogation purposes the ways in which he differs from the abstract type may be more significant than the ways in which he conforms.
But KUBARK does not dispose of the time or personnel to probe the depths of each source's individuality. In the opening phases of interrogation, or in a quick interrogation, we are compelled to make some use of the shorthand of categorizing, despite distortions. Like other interrogation aides, a scheme of categories is useful only if recognized for what it is -- a set of labels that facilitate communication but are not the same as the persons thus labelled. If an interrogatee lies persistently, an interrogator may report and dismiss him as a "pathological liar." Yet such persons may possess counterintelligence (or other) information quite equal in value to that held by other sources, and the interrogator likeliest to get at it is the man who is not content with labelling but is as interested in why the subject lies as in what he lies about.
With all of these reservations, then, and with the further observation that those who find these psychological-emotional categories pragmatically valuable should use them and those who do not should let them alone, the following nine types are described. The categories are based upon the fact that a person's past is always reflected, however dimily, in his present ethics and behavior. Old dogs can learn new tricks but not new ways of learning them. People do change, but what appears to be new behavior or a new psychological pattern is usually just a variant on the old theme.
It is not claimed that the classification system presented here is complete; some interrogatees will not fit into any one of the groupings. And like all other typologies, the system is plagued by overlap, so that some interrogatees will show characteristics of more than one group. Above all, the interrogator must remember that finding some of the characteristics of the group in a single source does not warrant an immediate conclusion that the source "belongs to" the group, and that even correct labelling is not the equivalent of understanding people but merely an aid to understanding.
The nine major groups within the psychological-emotional category adopted for this handbook are the following.
1. The orderly-obstinate character. People in this category are characteristically frugal, orderly, and cold; frequently they are quite intellectual. They are not impulsive in behavior. They tend to think things through logically and to act deliberately. They often reach decisions very slowly. They are far less likely to make real personal sacrifices for a cause than to use them as a temporary means of obtaining a permanent personal gain. They are secretive and disinclined to confide in anyone else their plans and plots, which frequently concern the overthrow of some form of authority. They are also stubborn, although they may pretend cooperation or even believe that they are cooperating. They nurse grudges.
The orderly-obstinate character considers himself superior to other people. Sometimes his sense of superiority is interwoven with a kind of magical thinking that includes all sorts of superstitions and fantasies about controlling his environment. He may even have a system of morality that is all his own. He sometimes gratifies his feeling of secret superiority by provoking unjust treatment. He also tries, characteristically, to keep open a line of escape by avoiding any real commitment to anything. He is -- and always has been -- intensely concerned about his personal possessions. He is usually a tightwad who saves everything, has a strong sense of propriety, and is punctual and tidy. His money and other possessions have for him a personalized quality; they are parts of himself. He often carries around shiny coins, keepsakes, a bunch of keys, and other objects having for himself an actual or symbolic value.
Usually the orderly-obstinate character has a history of active rebellion in childhood, of persistently doing the exact opposite of what he is told to do. As an adult he may have learned to cloak his resistance and become passive-aggressive, but his determination to get his own way is unaltered. He has merely learned how to proceed indirectly if necessary. The profound fear and hatred of authority, persisting since childhood, is often well-concealed in adulthood, For example, such a person may confess easily and quickly under interrogation, even to acts that he did not commit, in order to throw the interrogator off the trail of a significant discovery (or, more rarely, because of feelings of guilt).
The interrogator who is dealing with an orderly-obstinate character should avoid the role of hostile authority. Threats and threatening gestures, table-pounding, pouncing on evasions or lies, and any similarly authoritative tactics will only awaken in such a subject his old anxieties and habitual defense mechanisms. To attain rapport, the interrogator should be friendly. It will probably prove rewarding if the room and the interrogator look exceptionally neat. Orderly-obstinate interrogatees often collect coins or other objects as a hobby; time spent in sharing their interests may thaw some of the ice. Establishing rapport is extremely important when dealing with this type. [approx 3 lines deleted] (3)
2. The optimistic character. This kind of source is almost constantly happy-go-lucky, impulsive, inconsistent, and undependable. He seems to enjoy a continuing state of well-being. He may be generous to a fault, giving to others as he wants to be given to. He may become an alcoholic or drug addict. He is not able to withstand very much pressure; he reacts to a challenge not by increasing his efforts but rather by running away to avoid conflict. His convictions that "something will turn up", that "everything will work out all right", is based on his need to avoid his own responsibility for events and depend upon a kindly fate.
Such a person has usually had a great deal of over-indulgence in early life. He is sometimes the youngest member of a large family, the child of a middle-aged woman (a so-called "change-of-life baby"). If he has met severe frustrations in later childhood, he may be petulant, vengeful, and constantly demanding.
As interrogation sources, optimistic characters respond best to a kindly, parental approach. If withholding, they can often be handled effectively by the Mutt-and-Jeff technique discussed later in this paper. Pressure tactics or hostility will make them retreat inside themselves, whereas reassurance will bring them out. They tend to seek promises, to cast the interrogator in the role of protector and problem-solver; and it is important that the interrogator avoid making any specific promises that cannot be fulfilled, because the optimist turned vengeful is likely to prove troublesome.
Dictatorship is the only honest political system. Rulers rule for their own benefit, or maybe (maybe!) the interests of a ruling class. That is why warlordism is the political system of the future.
LGBT movement’s other goal: Lower age of consent to 10 years old for psychiatric therapy – without parents’ knowledge or consent!
04/24/2017 - Catholic Citizens
Outrageous bill passed House Committee in Colorado Legislature on Tuesday – despite strong testimony by Colorado MassResistance and others. But the fight is just beginning!
Similar laws already passed in states across America.
April 20, 2017
Fresh from the recent victory stopping the LGBT movement’s “anti-therapy” bill in the Colorado Legislature, pro-family people are up against an equally frightening bill that has been filed and just passed its first hurdle toward becoming law. It’s the latest among similar laws that are being quietly passed across the country.
The LGBT lobby is quietly but forcefully pushing for laws to allow children as young as 10 years old to “decide” they need psychiatric therapy – without their parents’ knowledge or consent. LGBT-allied “therapists” could push vulnerable children to affirm and accept homosexual and transgender “identity” and behaviors as “normal.”
This has terrifying implications for parents and families. Children are emotionally defenseless and can easily be persuaded by adults that they need this “help” from unknown, agenda-driven mental health professionals.
It’s not clear who pays for these services, but it’s assumed that the state funds them. It’s also not clear that parents would be allowed access to the resulting medical records.
To accommodate these laws, many school-based clinics now offer “behavioral health” services. The LGBT movement and Planned Parenthood have long been placing “youth clinics” inside schools to access children away from parental oversight. This past week, a Colorado MassResistance mother called one of the clinics and was told they can arrange a psychiatrist to meet with a child on site at the school.
This scheme dovetails with the other, more public LGBT campaign in state legislatures across America to ban counseling and therapy for children who have unwanted homosexual or transgender feelings – but would allow therapy to affirm homosexuality or transgenderism. Sadly, such a ban would be particularly devastating to children who have been sexually molested.
The scare tactic: “suicide prevention”
To persuade legislators that these laws are necessary, the proponents focus on “suicide prevention.” They make emotional claims that many young children are suicidal, cannot talk to their parents about it, and unless professional intervention happens the children will kill or horribly injure themselves.
“Suicide prevention” has been a lobbying tactic used by the LGBT movement for decades to push for a wide range of programs and funding. This broad claim has little scientific basis and usually depends on blatantly unscientific school surveys such as the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey. But sadly, most legislators are not informed enough to see through that. So too often, it works.
(Of course, it is true that psychological problems are far more prevalent among “LGBT-identifying” children. That’s because these behaviors are usually a symptom of earlier trauma, molestation, or other issues. So while these children may need psychological counseling, it must be done with non-activist professionals and parental oversight.)
California led the way for the radicals
In 2010 California passed the Mental Health Services for At-Risk Youth Act (SB 543), signed by Gov. Schwarzenegger, which lowered the age of consent to 12. The law was heavily lobbied by Equality California and other LGBT groups.
Since then, several states across the US have passed laws lowering the age of consent for outpatient (and inpatient) psychotherapy to various age levels, with various degrees of independence for children and notification of parents in these decisions.
The fight begins in Colorado
On April 5, 2017, Bill HB17-1320 was filed in the Colorado Legislature. It would lower the age of consent for outpatient psychotherapy to 10. (Read the text for the original bill here.) Soon after it was filed, the proponents got nervous and offered an amendment to change the age of consent to 12. But the bill is quite clear about its intent. It immediately went to the Democrat-controlled House Public Health Care & Human Services Committee.
A contentious public hearing
On April 18, the Committee held a public hearing for the bill, followed by a vote of the committee members. It was not an overwhelming turnout like other LGBT-related hearings. About 35 people showed up. All but 5 who testified were supporters of the bill.
Interestingly, the LGBT lobby seems to be hiding in the background on this. They sent in individual activists and allies to testify, but they did not give an LGBT affiliation. However, the LGBT movement’s fingerprints were there. It was almost all emotional, often tearful arguments about how they and/or their loved ones personally suffered and went through suicide issues as children because legislation did not exist to help them.
Most of the arguments were non-intellectual, irrational, and emotional. They did not focus on professional medical or legal issues. Much of their testimony was rambling, and didn’t even pertain to the bill. There were a lot of threats of children being suicidal, or at least cutting themselves badly, if they had to rely on their parents to decide for them. One of the sponsors of the bill even testified, and began crying when telling her story about her young son who she said wanted to commit suicide. But it had nothing to do with the intent of the bill. It seemed like they were simply throwing anything they could think of at the legislators to see what would stick.
The pro-family people included MassResistance Colorado and Colorado Family Action (CFA), including two attorneys that CFA brought. The MassResistance Colorado parents testified strongly, point by point against the bill, and how its true intent would horribly subvert parents and give an unknown therapist free latitude to diagnose and “treat” their children with whatever approach they chose, without knowing vital medical history or other information from parents.
The MassResistance Colorado parents also submitted a letter by Dr. Michelle Cretella, President of the American College of Pediatricians, against Bill HB 17-1320. Dr. Cretella strongly advised the legislators that adolescents are not capable of making these kinds of judgments about their mental health and psychological therapy.
The CFA attorneys cited constitutional problems with subverting parental rights, and noted that the door would be opened for lawsuits based on past Supreme Court decisions. As Dr. Cretella also observed, young children, especially those in some emotional distress, have absolutely no competence to consent to psychological treatment.
But more importantly, the attorneys noted that statistically these laws have had virtually no positive effect. In California the child suicide rate has actually increased since their law was passed.
Somewhat shockingly, when one of the parents cited the ideological agenda and special interests behind this bill which clearly seem to override interests and needs of the parents and children, the Committee Chairman said that “impugning the motives” of people would not be allowed in testimony!
Committee barely passes it
When the testimony ended, the Committee passed a few minor amendments, including one that would change the age of consent from 10 to 12. The main sponsor explained that she had met with “stakeholders” (i.e., activists supporting the bill) and apparently decided that 10 years old was too hard to sell right now. Then the Committee passed the bill 7-6, along party lines.
One of the Democrat committee members, Dan Pabon, didn’t even bother to be there for the testimony; he only came in for the vote, and voted “yes”.
Interestingly, one of the Republican committee members, Lois Landgraf, was a sponsor of the bill. But after hearing the testimony, she changed her mind and voted against it. She told legislators:
“If a suicidal child can’t go to parents, there has to be a solution, and I don’t know what it is, but this isn’t it. This bill was too intrusive into the parent-child relationship, so I removed my sponsorship.”
Another Republican committee member noted that it’s being promoted as a “suicide prevention” bill, but that it’s far more expansive and broad than that. “It’s really a mental health bill that excludes parents,” he told his fellow legislators.
And the fight continues
The bill now goes to the full House, which could happen any day now.
We believe that this bill can be stopped in the Senate, if it gets there. The problem in other states, we believe, has been not enough, if any, pro-family firepower. But even in Colorado it will take some serious work. The CFA people are already scheduling meetings with Senators, and MassResistance Colorado is also prepared to help.
It’s terrifying that most citizens have no idea these laws are being passed in America to give vulnerable children into the hands of “mental health” activists, quacks, or worse.
It is the secret dream of every Swedish or German woman to marry a black men, or at least have sex with a black man. Every smart young African man should migrate to Europe. Free money, nice house, good sex!
Cruel and Unusual Punishments: 15 Types of Torture
The human mind has long been capable of dreaming up new and terrible ways to punish alleged transgressors, villains, witches, and anyone else who was unlucky enough to be in the wrong place at the wrong time. We’re all familiar with the old standbys: hanging, burning, stoning. Yawn. What if someone really wrongs you? Like steals your sheep or somehow must have caused a crop failure or something because they gave you a shifty look that one time? Throughout the ages some extremely brutal methods of torture and execution have come and gone. And there are a few that have not yet gone, too. Read on about these 15 terrifying types of torture, but please don’t try this at home.
15 Upright jerker
The upright jerker was an interesting twist on a classic execution method. Hanging, while it is a true standby all around the world, leaves much to be desired in terms of effectiveness. Depending on the weight of the person, rope, trap door, and numerous other factors, it can be a very slow or awkward way to die. The natural solution? Do it backwards! The upright jerker was a modified hanging system that used heavy weights and pulleys to quickly jerk the condemned into the air. It was hoped this would be a more effective way to break the neck quickly...but it didn’t always work as planned.
What’s the first thing that comes to mind when someone wrongs you? Throw them off a cliff! This has been a simple solution to unwanted nuisances for centuries. While it’s largely fallen out of fashion, Iran still employs this method for state executions.
13 Crushed by elephant
This is a weirdly specific method of execution, but you can’t argue with its effectiveness. As you might guess, it was common in areas where elephants are naturally found, primarily in South and Southeast Asia. Elephants were often trained in order to ensure the trampling was as brutal as possible.
12 Ling chi
Ling chi, also known as "slow slicing" or "death by a thousand cuts" was a method of torturous execution practiced in China. The condemned was tied to a post and bits of skin and limbs were gradually removed one by one, usually culminating in a final cut to the heart or decapitation. It was used as early as the 10th century, and continued for nearly a thousand years. Luckily it was banned in 1905.
11 Blood eagle
The blood eagle comes from Nordic legends of Viking executions. The condemned’s back was slashed so as to give access to the ribs, which were then broken and twisted upward to look like wings. To add injury to injury, salt was poured into the wound. And as a final blow, the lungs were pulled out and draped over the rib-wings for effect. Thankfully, there is debate about whether or not this practice actually existed, or if it’s just the stuff of legend. Either way, it’s terrifying that someone took the time to think this up.
Keelhauling was a type of punishment specifically for sailors, dreamt up by the Dutch navy in the late 16th century. Offenders were tied with rope and dragged underwater from one end of the ship to the other. While many died from the practice due to drowning or internal injuries, in theory it wasn’t always meant to be fatal. As a bonus, men who were punished by keelhauling were often cut mercilessly by barnacles on the ship’s bottom (keel) and carried the scars with them for life. If they lived, that is.
Nowadays, boiling alive is a fate reserved for shellfish. But centuries ago it was a common method of execution from East Asia to England. The condemned was stripped and then placed in a vat or pot of boiling liquid, usually water, oil, or tar. Or, for a more gruesome experience, the offender could be placed in cool liquid and then heated to boiling. Records from the reign of Henry VIII show that some people were boiled for up to two hours before they finally died.
08 Rat torture
Rat torture apparently lives on in the minds of creative types, as it has been featured recently in the film 2 Fast 2 Furious and in the TV series Game of Thrones. In this terrifying (and, I’ll admit, creative) form of torture, a hungry and/or diseased rat is placed in a bucket on the victim’s bare stomach or chest. The bucket is then heated from the outside, and the agitated rat chews its way through the unfortunate person’s flesh...and any organs it happens to encounter on its way out.
07 Execution vans
China has made capital punishment shockingly efficient. It’s little surprise, really, considering that China conducts the most executions per year of any country in the world. A variety of crimes are punishable by death, including tax fraud, arson, and prostitution. Many executions in China are now performed in mobile execution units, vans that are equipped with restraints and drugs necessary for lethal injection. The vans, which look like typical police vans, have been on the road for about a decade. There are dozens of them all over the country, dipensing lethal justice closer to the scenes of crimes. Not only are they cheaper than more traditional facilities, Chinese officials say, but they are more humane than the other preferred method of execution—death by firing squad.
The gridiron was basically a grill. For roasting people. As one might expect, it looked like an iron grid, and was placed over a fire or burning coals. Some people were even basted in oil first, to ensure proper broiling. But take heart, they weren’t eaten afterward. Probably.
05 Drawing and quartering
Drawing and quartering is one of the most infamous methods of cruel and unusual punishment. It’s still difficult to believe it’s an actual thing that was conceived by actual humans and happened to actual unfortunate souls. The punishment was first doled out in England in the 13th century. The accused was drawn—tied to a horse and dragged to the gallows—and then usually hanged, maybe disemboweled, or beheaded. Afterward, the condemned was quartered, i.e. had his body split in quarters, sometimes by tying each limb to a different horse and having them run in opposite directions. This punishment was reserved for those guilty of treason, and was abolished in 1867.
Strappado is an uncomfortable form of torture that, unlike many of the others on this list, doesn’t necessarily end in death. In strappado, the guilty party is strung up by the wrists, behind the head. The awkward angle is pretty much guaranteed to cause an agonizing dislocation of the shoulders, but if it doesn’t weights may be added. Thought to have originated in medieval times during the Inquisition, strappado has been used into the 21st century.
03 White torture
While the term "white torture" can mean any psychological torture in general, the meaning here is more literal. White torture is a type of sensory deprivation in which a prisoner’s cell, clothes, and even food are entirely white. Guards wear all white, lights are kept on 24 hours a day, and no words are spoken. No color is seen. It was documented in the case of Amir Fakhravar, who was arrested in his native Iran and subjected to white torture for some 8 months in 2004. While the physical pain of sensory deprivation is minimal compared to other tortures on this list, the psychological damage is beyond compare. Fakhravar was quoted as saying when he was released, he was not a normal person anymore, and could no longer remember even the faces of his parents.
02 Poena cullei
The punishment of the sack, or poena cullei, was another oddly specific form of excution. It was used in ancient Rome in cases of parricide (or killing one’s parents or other close family member). The condemned was sewn into a leather sack with a number of animals, including a dog, a monkey, a snake, and a rooster. Then the whole bag was tossed into a body of water. If the animals didn’t kill the alleged murderer, drowning surely would.
Scaphism was one of the worst and most painful, skin-crawling methods of torture. It was described by the Greeks as a punishment used by the Persians, and if they are to be believed, those Persians were insane. In this form of execution, the accused was trapped between two boats (or in a hollowed-out tree trunk) and force-fed milk and honey. Okay, that part doesn’t sound so bad. But the milk-and-honey diet eventually caused horrible diarrhea, which stayed within the wooden enclosure. The unfortunate condemned was smeared with more milk and honey and left out in the sun or near still water, where bugs would be attracted to the muck and rot and sweetness. The person would inevitably die--either of dehydration, exposure, or bite and sting wounds.
We are different. For us, the adherents of Kreutz Religion, sex is sacred. Sexual intercourse is religious service. Flirting is worship. Optimal orgasms build our immortal soul. Our karma depends on sexual success. Evolution has a spiritual dimension.
ALL THE THINGS YOU'VE EVER WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT PENIS ENLARGEMENT SURGERY THRILLIST
Published On 11/23/2016
If you’ve ever been curious about beefing up your bulge, for the love of god, don’t Google it.
To save your eyes -- and your search history -- we talked to the man behind many a magnified member, Dr. Victor Loria, and a former patient of his about sizing up. It’s time to stop beating around the bush with penis enlargement surgery, so you can, well… beat around the bush.
Girthier is the way to go
If you’re looking for a minimally invasive way to add some weight to your package, an implant is definitely NOT for you. Dr. Loria’s enlargement technique is done with a cosmetic filler à la Kylie Jenner’s lips -- not an implant -- and isn’t surgery in the traditional sense.
“I inject permanent filler material into the penile shaft, penile glans, and scrotum for enlargement,” he explains. “Other treatments such as fat transfer, Alloderm implants, Elist implants, skin autografts, etc., are all invasive surgical procedures and are associated with much higher infection and damage risks.” Dr. Loria’s procedure can and sometimes does add about .5 to 1 inch of flaccid length, in addition to plumping up your penis.
Assuming you like to err on the side of caution with your most essential appendage, it might be worthwhile to limit the risks you take to those that occur in the bedroom -- not the operating table. “This type of procedure seemed to be the safest technique as there are many years of research and millions of patients that have undergone these procedures using dermal fillers or collagen enhancers,” says one of Dr. Loria's former patients.
“Adding even a half an inch in circumference is very noticeable," he said, "unlike adding a half inch to length which is probably unnoticeable to a women. A half-inch increase in girth, definitely is.”
There is a sweet spot when it comes to size
You might be relieved to hear that there is such a thing as too big when it comes to penis girth. Dr. Loria recommends a 6.5- to 7-inch circumference for “optimal stimulation.” If you don’t have a tape measure handy, that’s like a robust, cucumber-sized schlong. It's also a whole hell of a lot bigger than the average Joe's girth, which is a mere 4.6 inches when engorged.
The largest patient Dr. Loria has is “about 8.5 inches in girth… too large for many women (and men), but he is happy.” A can of Coke is actually smaller in circumference, so god help that guy’s partner.
Side effects are minimal
As many women older than 30 already know, cosmetic fillers come with some pretty typical and mostly low-level side effects, including temporary skin irritation, itching, and redness. Same goes for peniis-enlargement filers. Dr Loria described his procedure as “almost 100% painless. The only discomfort was from the feeling of being swollen, stretching the penis skin after the injections.” And no need to get knocked out to rock your cock out; Dr. Loria primarily uses a strong numbing cream before injecting the filler.
The only unexpected issue that might arise (!) is if the filler shifts, which as Dr. Loria explained, may happen with the healing process and normal swelling. “The patients are instructed to observe and make any corrective shaping efforts as the collagen forms... this is more of an art than a science,” he explains. It also gives whole new meaning to the idea of rubbing one out.
Circumcise before you supersize
Pretty much any man is eligible for Dr. Loria’s penile enhancement, even the “elderly and diabetic,” he says. However, for some of you, sizing up may come at a cost… of your foreskin.
If your weiner isn’t kosher, Dr. Loria recommends getting circumcised beforehand. “The uncircumcised patient is much more problematic when it comes to shaping,” he explains.
Business as usual (and better) in the bedroom After a recovery period of 21 to 28 days, you can go back to getting busy. And don’t worry, the menu hasn’t changed since you last visited the restaurant. All points of entry are on the table, assures Dr. Loria, provided the enlargement isn't too big for whomever's holes you're filling.
The patient we spoke to is in his 50s, and humbly admits “[my] manhood is not as sensitive as it was in my 20s. Reaching orgasms was becoming a little more difficult and would sometimes become an issue when I could not fully touch all four walls of my lover. Having a larger penis now means more physical contact and feeling for not just my lover, but for me also.”
The ladies love it
“Even though my fiance said she was happy with our previous sex life, she has confided with me and said that my thicker penis has greatly improved her ability to reach orgasm and is able to have more of them quicker together,” said Dr. Loria’s patient.
So there you have it. At least one woman has spoken, and size does matter. But having a third leg for a penis isn’t worth much -- unless it packs some muscle.
There is a new solution coming up for ugly old women. Normally they would just become man-hating feminists. But soon they can have their brains transplanted into a sex doll, and feel beautiful again.
Pro-rape' US pick-up artist posts personal details and pictures of female journalists online in revenge for negative coverage
A controversial 'pro-rape pick-up artist' is posting the personal details of journalists who have criticised him online.
Daryush Valizadeh - also known as Roosh V - is infamous for arguing that raping women should be legal on private property.
Labelled 'Operation Bullhorn', Roosh has asked his online supporters to 'adopt' a journalist and post their details on his forum. They have been instructed to gather photos, Facebook profiles and have even been told to save addresses for possible future use.
One forum user said the backlash was 'because women are scared that they won't be able to get a free lunch anymore by virtue of having a vagina.'
The backlash follows criticism of international meetups which included eight UK cities, including Manchester, London, Leeds, and Glasgow.
The meet-ups, set to take place today, were cancelled after Roosh claimed he feared for the safety of his supporters.
Feminism, by creating artificial scarcity of sexual resources, is responsible for much of the deadly infighting among men, as well as male suicides.
American pedophile in Albania
Seven years after our country was shocked by a pedophile scandal at the “Femijet e Tij” Center, (His Children), in the Albanian capital, where three foreigners had abused with homeless minors, another scandal is expected to end up in court soon.
Top Channel has secured the prosecution file against the US citizen, Carl Stephan Kaminski, today 70 years old, who arrived in Albania under the name David Gerard Golderstein. He will be prosecuted in absence for pedophilia with grave consequences against three children during 2003-2006.
One of the abused children, according to the prosecution, is still being cured for serious psychiatric problems, with the diagnosis “refractory schizophrenia” and is unable to communicate.
The minor showed these problems after he was abused. The Prosecution says that Kaminski has entered Albania as a tourist and has mostly lived in Durres. During this time he has abused with children in a house that he had rented.
“He has abused with three minors when he was living in the rented house. The defendant even took naked pictures of the children, promising to delete them”, the Prosecution file says.
The pedophile was discovered recently after a notification that arrived in 2011 by the US authorities.
According to the documents that Top Channel has secured, after abusing with the children he has left during the time when another pedophilia scandal shocked the country, that of the British citizens, David Brown, Dino Kristodulu and Robin Arnold.
But Kaminski was arrested by the German Police near Rosenheim, for traveling with false documents under the name David Gerard Golsderstein, as a Belgian citizen. In this country he was sentenced with one year and four months for falsification of documents.
After finishing the sentence, the 70 year old was handed over to the US justice, where the authorities were looking for him for sexual abuses with minors. When he was 30 years old, he was also sentenced in Massachusetts for pedophilia.
The US prosecutors found pornographic videos of him with the Albanian minors, and have immediately notified the Albanian Prosecution that opened the case.
The Albanian prosecution asked the extradition of Carl Stephan Kamisnki, based on the extradition tractate of 1993.
Restore freedom: Liberty Dependeth on the Silence of the Law. Through out most laws. Return responsibility to heads of families.
“Out of his mind” surgeon plans human head transplant, revival of frozen brain
Italian neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero will undertake the first human head transplant later this year in China, the doctor told German magazine Ooom in an article published Thursday. And, following that effort, he will revive a cryogenically frozen brain and transplant it into a donor body within the next three years.
The plans, completely disconnected from reality and the state of modern medicine, are at least in line with his previous outlandish goals and dubious animal research.
Canavero made headlines in the past few years by claiming that transplanting the whole head of a human onto a donor body is currently possible. A Russian man, suffering from a spinal muscular atrophy malady called Werdnig-Hoffmann Disease, even publicly volunteered for the procedure.
As proof that the transplant could work, Canavero published gruesome experiments in 2016, said to have repaired the severely injured spinal cords of mice, rats, and a dog. The experiments came complete with cringe-worthy video of recovering animals struggling to drag their limp bodies around. Yet, the study lacked controls, detailed methods, and data on the injuries and recoveries. Canavero claimed to perform a head transplant on a monkey but did not publish the experiment.
Experts decidedly consider his research on spinal cord repair, let alone whole head transplants, unconvincing. A medical ethicist dubbed Canavero “out of his mind” for sweeping past the currently insurmountable challenges of such feats. These include intricately repairing and reattaching thousands of delicate nerves and restoring function. Right now, doctors can’t even convince the immune system to accept far simpler transplants consistently. There’s also the completely unknown effects of such a transplant on the powerful human psyche.
Canavero is carrying on, undeterred it seems. In his Ooom interview, he not only glided through the idea of successfully transplanting a head, he made an even more absurd claim: that he would revive a cryogenically frozen brain and transplant it into a donor body. Canavero said he would obtain a preserved brain from Alcor Life Extension Foundation, a cryonics company located in Scottsdale, Arizona, according to Gizmodo.
There is currently no way to revive and molecularly repair a frozen human brain. And such transplants haven’t even been attempted in animals. Thus, the surgical procedure is decades if not centuries away.
As Gizmodo also reports, Alcor said that Canavera hadn’t even contacted the company. It distanced itself from the doctor, as did other cryonics leaders, and noted that his efforts are not realistic or even a shared goal.
You have to understand the mentality of Hong Kong businessmen. They exploit their workers harshly, trick their suppliers when they lower their guard, cheat their customers on every occasion, and then spend their earnings on prostitutes
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